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To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes.

Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.

Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar , sabzi , salad Shirazi , and torshi , and might follow dishes such as borani , Mirza Qasemi , or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.

Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing , snowboarding , hiking , rock climbing , [] and mountain climbing. Iran's National Olympic Committee was founded in Wrestlers and weightlifters have achieved the country's highest records at the Olympics.

The Azadi Sport Complex , which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion. Football has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with the men's national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions.

The men's national team has maintained its position as Asia's best team, ranking 1st in Asia and 33rd in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings as of May [update].

Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. Basketball is also popular, [] with the men's national team having won three Asian Championships since In , Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess U.

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking th out of countries on the Press Freedom Index as of Iran's first newspapers were published during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in the midth century.

The country's most widely circulated periodicals are based in Tehran, among which are Etemad , Ettela'at , Kayhan , Hamshahri , Resalat , and Shargh.

Television was introduced in Iran in Iran received access to the Internet in According to Internet World Stats, as of [update] , around According to the statistics provided by the web information company of Alexa , Google Search is Iran's most widely used search engine and Instagram is the most popular online social networking service.

Fashion in Iran is divided into several historical periods. The exact date of the emergence of weaving in Iran is not yet known, but it is likely to coincide with the emergence of civilization.

Clothing in Iran is mentioned in Persian mythology. Ferdowsi and many historians have considered Keyumars to be the inventor of the use of animals' skin and hair as clothing.

Some historians have also mentioned Hushang as the first inventor of the use of living skins as clothing. There are historical discoveries in northern Iran from about 6, BC that refer to wool weaving at the time.

Other discoveries in central Iran dating back to BC have shown that the animals' skin has not been the only clothing worn on the Iranian plateau since those years.

The clothing of ancient Iran took an advanced form, and the fabric and color of clothing became very important at that time. Depending on the social status, eminence, climate of the region and the season, Persian clothing during the Achaemenian period took various forms.

The philosophy used in this clothing, in addition to being functional, also had an aesthetic role. Beauty pageant festivals inside Iran were not held after the revolution , and the last selection ceremony of the "beauty queen of Iran" was held in in this country.

Since then, a high number of Iranian girls participated in the Beauty pageant and Miss Universe outside of Iran. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in the Middle East. For other uses, see Iran disambiguation and Persia disambiguation. List of languages. List of ethnicities.

Unitary Khomeinist presidential Islamic republic. Main article: Name of Iran. Main article: History of Iran.

Further information: Prehistory of Iran and Archaeological sites in Iran. See also: Indo-European migrations.

Main articles: Muslim conquest of Persia and Medieval Iran. Main article: Safavid Iran. Main article: Afsharid dynasty. Main article: Zand dynasty.

Main article: Qajar Iran. Main article: Pahlavi dynasty. See also: Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. Main article: Geography of Iran.

See also: Agriculture in Iran and Environmental issues in Iran. Hot desert climate. Cold desert climate. Hot semi-arid climate. Cold semi-arid climate.

Hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Continental Mediterranean climate. See also: Wildlife of Iran. See also: List of Iranian cities by population.

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad. Razavi Khorasan. Sistan and Baluchestan. North Khorasan.

South Khorasan. West Azerbaijan. East Azerbaijan. Caspian Sea. Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia. Largest cities or towns in Iran census.

Main article: Politics of Iran. Main article: Judicial system of Iran. Main article: Foreign relations of Iran. Major Iran—Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations.

See also: Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Economy of Iran. Main article: Tourism in Iran. Main articles: Education in Iran and Science and technology in Iran.

Main article: Demographics of Iran. See also: Healthcare in Iran. Main article: Languages of Iran. Main article: Ethnicities in Iran.

Main articles: Religion in Iran and Irreligion in Iran. See also: Islamization of Iran. Main article: Culture of Iran.

Main articles: Iranian art and Arts of Iran. See also: Achaemenid architecture , Parthian art , Sasanian art , Safavid art , Qajar art , and Iranian modern and contemporary art.

Main articles: Iranian architecture and Persian gardens. Ruins of the Tachara , part of the World Heritage site of Persepolis.

Main article: Persian carpet. Main articles: Literature in Iran , Iranian literature , and Persian literature. Main articles: Persian mythology and Iranian folklore.

Main article: Music of Iran. Main articles: Persian theater and Persian dance. Main articles: Cinema of Iran and History of Iranian animation. See also: List of festivals in Iran.

Main article: Public holidays in Iran. See also: Iranian calendars. Main article: Iranian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Iran. Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the Summer Olympics.

Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the Summer Olympics. Main article: Media of Iran. Main article: Fashion in Iran. The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription , where ariya- is the name of a language DB 4.

Transliteration Allahu Akbar. As referred to in art. The de facto motto however is: 'Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 January The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency United States.

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But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or 'Iranian lands', which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam.

On the other hand, when the Safavids not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.

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Oxford University Press, Oxford. By January, Ottoman regulars and cavalry detachments associated with the old Hamidiye had seized the towns of Urmia, Khoy, and Salmas.

Demonstrations of resistance by local Christians, comprising Armenians, Nestorians, Syriacs, and Assyrians, led Ottoman forces to massacre civilians and torch villages throughout the border region of Iran.

Without distorting the facts, one can affirm that the centuries-old Armenian presence in the regions of Urmia, Salmast, Qaradagh, and Maku had been dealt a blow from which it would never recover.

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Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 18 March Freedom in the World Freedom House. Retrieved 25 May The Islamic Republic of Iran holds elections regularly, but they fall short of democratic standards due to the role of the hard-line Guardian Council, which disqualifies all candidates deemed insufficiently loyal to the clerical establishment.

Ultimate power rests in the hands of the country's supreme leader , Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , and the unelected institutions under his control.

Human rights abuses continued unabated in , with the authorities carrying out Iran's largest mass execution in years and launching a renewed crackdown on women's rights activists.

The regime maintained restrictions on freedom of expression, both offline and online, and made further arrests of journalists, bloggers, labor union activists, and dual nationals visiting the country, with some facing heavy prison sentences.

Hard-liners in control of powerful institutions, including the judiciary and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps IRGC , were behind many of the year's abuses.

There were no indications that President Hassan Rouhani, a self-proclaimed moderate seeking reelection in , was willing or able to push back against repressive forces and deliver the greater social freedoms he had promised.

Opposition leaders Mir Hossein Mousavi, his wife Zahra Rahnavard, and reformist cleric Mehdi Karroubi remained under house arrest for a sixth year without being formally charged or put on trial.

As in , the media were barred from quoting or reporting on former president Mohammad Khatami, another important reformist figure. Deutsche Welle. Xinhua News Agency.

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Tat was known to have been used at different times to designate Crimean Goths, Greeks and sedentary peoples generally, but its primary reference came to be the Persians within the Turkic domains.

Tat is nowadays specialized to refer to special groups with Iranian languages in the west of the Caspian Sea.

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They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principal mountain is called Kuh Sulayman.

It is told that the prophet Sulayman [Solomon] ascended this mountain and having looked out over India, which was then covered with darkness, returned without entering it.

Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia. Retrieved 10 June Encyclopedia of World History 6th ed. The Houghton Mifflin Company. The Achaemenid clan possibly ruled over the Persian tribes already in the 9th century B.

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Of the numerous Iranian tribes who had settled in Iranian plateau, it was the Medes Finally in B. Their combined forces succeeded in bringing the Assyrian Empire down, thus eliminating a power that had ruled with ruthless efficiency over the Middle East for several centuries.

Achaemenes q. Psychology Press. The inscriptions of Darius I All this evidence shows that the name arya "Iranian" was a collective definition, denoting peoples Although, up until the end of the Parthian period, Iranian identity had an ethnic, linguistic, and religious value, it did not yet have a political import.

The idea of an "Iranian" empire or kingdom is a purely Sasanian one. It was in the Sasanian period, then, that the pre-Islamic Iranian identity reached the height of its fulfilment in every aspect: political, religious, cultural, and linguistic with the growing diffusion of Middle Persian.

Its main ingredients were the appeal to a heroic past that was identified or confused with little-known Achaemenid origins Walter de Gruyter.

The Pahlavi language also known as Middle Persian was the official language of Iran during the Sassanid dynasty from 3rd to 7th century A.

Pahlavi is the direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country.

However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian.

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New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries, is today spoken widely in and outside Iran in a number of variants.

In Frye, R. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc.

The Lurs speak an aberrant form of Archaic Persian John Wiley and Sons. Middle Persian was the official language of the Sassanian dynasty The Jews of Arab Lands.

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Refers to non-Arabs. Connotes cultural and ethnic inferiority. Adjectival form: ajami. Principally used to designate and eventually synonymous with Persians.

Cornell University Press. Early New Persian". Arabic Elements in Persian". Iran under the Safavids.

Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?

Safavid to Qajar Periods". Safavid inscriptions on the pre Islamic monuments e. An unexpected burst of activity in secular architecture marks the 17th century.

Bridges which have wider functions than carrying traffic were built, reviving Sasanian custom Qajar decoration is usually unmistakable.

Simple, rather strident tiled geometric or epigraphic designs in small glazed bricks were especially popular. Typical of comparable nationalist historiographies in the early part of the 20th century e.

Moreover, promotion of the ancient past as a wholesale propaganda tool in the service of the state engendered nationalistic pride that proved detrimental to dispassionate historical inquiry.

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Jazyki narodov SSSR. The Tat language belongs to the Southwest group of Iranian languages and is close in its grammatical structure and lexical content to the Persian and Tajik languages.

Global Vision Publishing House. The contemporary Tats are the descendants of an Iranian-speaking population sent out of Persia by the dynasty of the Sasanids in the fifth to sixth centuries.

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In modern Iran, the Persians make up the Ups saint cloud mn of the population. Iran subsequently became a major center of Islamic culture Interracial nylon sex learning, with its art, Iran_persian, philosophy, and architecture spreading across the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age. Royal Ontario MuseumToronto. Xinhua News Agency. The Safavid era saw the start of mass integration from Caucasian populations into new layers of Kristal summers cuckold society of Iran, as well as mass resettlement of them Croatian milf the heartlands of Iran, playing a pivotal role Fell in love with a stripper the history of Iran for centuries onwards. For a period of over years, the Sasanians Tight young cunt the neighboring Byzantines were recognized Elsa jean jean shorts the two leading powers in the world. Inthe Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads, notably by the support from the " Www mega titten de " Kostenlos milf pornos Iranians.

Iran_persian Video

Persian dance by Iranian student of University of Ottawa and Carleton University.

Tahmasp Quli, un chef de tribu afchar , chasse les Afghans et prend le pouvoir en sous le nom de Nader Chah. Sa mort en est encore suivie de luttes.

Le persan ou farsi est la langue officielle de l'Iran. Par ailleurs, le port du foulard islamique est obligatoire pour toutes les femmes, y compris les touristes, en Iran.

La censure persiste et s'est durcie avec le gouvernement de Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Tsahal riposte par des raids sur une cinquantaine de bases iraniennes, dont des sites de renseignement, de logistique, de stockage et des postes d'observation en Syrie [ ].

Elle le dit, personne ne le conteste. Et il ne le fera jamais. Zulfiqar , des missiles balistiques par ex. Cependant, le manque de raffineries fait que le pays importe un tiers de son carburant [ ].

Asie centrale. Asie de l'Ouest. Asie du Sud-Est. Asie du Sud. Asie du Nord. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikivoyage. Menu de navigation Espaces de noms Article Discussion.

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Ashgate Publishing. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. Retrieved 27 May Iran: The Illusion of Power. London: St. Martin's Press. Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 14 March Human Rights Watch.

Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 7 August The Jerusalem Post JPost. Anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism in Iran.

Israel Affairs. UK Parliament. Retrieved 18 June Herbert Hunt 18 May Petro-Hunt LLC. Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 10 November Encyclopedia Iranica.

Costa Mesa: Mazda. Archived from the original on 13 March Archived from the original on 3 March Iranica website.

Retrieved 30 March The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 23 May Frye 20 October Archived from the original on 23 April LIT Verlag Münster.

The Harvard Theological Review. I use the term Iran in an historical context [ I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia — that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.

Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 7 February Voice of America.

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University of Michigan. Basic Books. Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. Large numbers of Georgian and Armenian captives had lived in Iran since or as far back as Armenian People , p.

Oxford University Press, Oxford. By January, Ottoman regulars and cavalry detachments associated with the old Hamidiye had seized the towns of Urmia, Khoy, and Salmas.

Demonstrations of resistance by local Christians, comprising Armenians, Nestorians, Syriacs, and Assyrians, led Ottoman forces to massacre civilians and torch villages throughout the border region of Iran.

Without distorting the facts, one can affirm that the centuries-old Armenian presence in the regions of Urmia, Salmast, Qaradagh, and Maku had been dealt a blow from which it would never recover.

American Armenian International College. Assyrians who were killed in Khoy, some Armenian residents of Khoy were also massacred at the same time, June Transaction Publishers.

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Iran: The Land. Crabtree Publishing Company. The Complete Fauna of Iran. Simba: The Life of the Lion. Howard Timmins, Cape Town. Archived from the original on 20 May Hamshahri Online in Persian.

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Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 18 March Freedom in the World Freedom House. Retrieved 25 May The Islamic Republic of Iran holds elections regularly, but they fall short of democratic standards due to the role of the hard-line Guardian Council, which disqualifies all candidates deemed insufficiently loyal to the clerical establishment.

Ultimate power rests in the hands of the country's supreme leader , Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , and the unelected institutions under his control.

Human rights abuses continued unabated in , with the authorities carrying out Iran's largest mass execution in years and launching a renewed crackdown on women's rights activists.

The regime maintained restrictions on freedom of expression, both offline and online, and made further arrests of journalists, bloggers, labor union activists, and dual nationals visiting the country, with some facing heavy prison sentences.

Hard-liners in control of powerful institutions, including the judiciary and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps IRGC , were behind many of the year's abuses.

There were no indications that President Hassan Rouhani, a self-proclaimed moderate seeking reelection in , was willing or able to push back against repressive forces and deliver the greater social freedoms he had promised.

Opposition leaders Mir Hossein Mousavi, his wife Zahra Rahnavard, and reformist cleric Mehdi Karroubi remained under house arrest for a sixth year without being formally charged or put on trial.

As in , the media were barred from quoting or reporting on former president Mohammad Khatami, another important reformist figure. Deutsche Welle.

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Most conventional estimates of the Azerbaijani population range between one-fifth to one-third of the general population of Iran, the majority claiming one-fourth.

Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. It is difficult to determine the exact number of Southern Azeris in Iran, as official statistics are not published detailing Iran's ethnic structure.

Excerpt: "The number of Azeris in Iran is heavily disputed. CIA and Library of congress estimates range from 16 percent to 24 percent—that is, 12—18 million people if we employ the latest total figure for Iran's population Azeri ethnicsts, on the other hand, argue that overall number is much higher, even as much as 50 percent or more of the total population.

Such inflated estimates may have influenced some Western scholars who suggest that up to 30 percent that is, some 23 million today Iranians are Azeris.

Retrieved 31 August Kingdom of the Cults, The. Baker Books. Ninety-five percent of Iran's Muslims are Shi'ites.

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Nevertheless, the most important curtain-raiser to Norouz is Chaharshanbe Soori which is a fire festival held on the eve of the last Wednesday of the calendar year.

This festival is full of special customs and rituals, especially jumping over fire. The ancient tradition has transformed over time from a simple bonfire to the use of firecrackers Iranians Celebrate Festival of Fire".

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